A flume can be used to measure the rate of flow. Specific designs include the Venturi Flume, Parshall Flume, Palmer-Bowlus, trapezoidal, and H-Flume. In a water balance study to the underground mine, we have installed several flumes. A sewer pipe can be used as a flow measurement flume by using the Manning formula.
A flume is an open artificial water channel, in the form of a gravity chute, that leads water from a diversion dam or weir completely aside a natural flow. Often, the flume is an elevated box structure (typically wood) that follows the natural contours of the land. These have been extensively used in hydraulic mining and working placer deposits for gold, tin and other heavy minerals. They are also used in the transportation of logs in the logging industry, electric power generation and to power various mill operations by the use of a waterwheel. Examples of flumes are Venturi flumes and Parshall flumes. Flumes are not to be confused with aquaducts, which are built with the goal of transporting the water, whereas a flume would use the flowing water to transport other materials.
The data we collected are continuously recorded using an transducer. We used Win-Situ 5 software package to download and view the data. It is important to make sure that the transducer and the flume stage level are exactly the same.