Distribution of Coal in India

Distribution of Coal in India

Occurrence: Major coalfields in India lie East- West , starting from a point approximately 185 km NW of Kolkata (Calcutta) and streaching ewestward. Distribution of coals in India can be subdivided into a) Lower Gondowana Coalfields, b) Upper Gondowana Coalfields, c) Tertiary Coalfields. The tables below show over all distribution of coalfields in India.

Gondowana Coals are most important in India and account for more than 90% of coal production in country. The land mass of southern hemisphere was united with South Africa, India, Australia and possibly South America. India  drifted north-east relative to Africa and the Gondowana landmass was exposed to sub-aerial conditions for a long period of time. The initiation of Gondowana period is marked by a glacial period (evidenced by Talcher Series). Climate changed to a more temperate condition in later period melting snow and allowing prolific growth of vegetation. This huge vegetation got buried and produced Gondowana Coals. The land subsidence began in the east giving rise to a great depth of Barakar and Ranigunju measures. The great depth along with earth movement allowed the coal seam to lose moisture and volatile matter and change in chemical conditions and sometimes converted to coke (example: Barakar Strata). To the west, subsidence was less as evidenced by thin and poor quality coal seams.

Tertiary Coals contribute very little of the total coal production in India. They usually have high sulfur content (2-8%).
a) Lower Gondowana Coalfields in India:

State Sub division Coalfields
West Bengal Damodar Valley Raniganj (Trans Barakar),Bankura
Darjeeling District Bagrakote, Tindharia
Bihar Damodar Valley Ranigunj (Cis Barakar), Jharia, Bokaro, Chandrapura, South Karampura, North Karampura, Ramgarh
Rajmahal Area Hura, Gilhuria and Jilbari, Chuparbhita, Pachwara, Brahmini
Deogarh Area Kundit Kuria, Sahajuri, Jainti
Hazaribagh District Giridhi, Chope, Itkhori.
Palamu Region Anuranga, Daltongunj, Hutar
Madha Pradesh South Rawa Region Singrauli, Korar, Johilla river, Umaria, Sohagpur
North Chattishgarh Region Jhilmili, Tatapani-Ramkola, Sanhat, Jharkhand, Chirimiri-Kurasia, Koreagarh, Bassar, Bisrampur, Lakhanpur, Panchbhaini, Dambhamunda, Sendargarh
South Chattishgarh Region Hasdo -Rampur, Korba, Raigarh, Mand River, Kankani.
Satpura Region MOhpani, Sonada, Sahpur (Tawa), Dulhara (Tawa), Pathakera, Bamhanwara, Upper Tawa Valley, Kanhan Valley, Pench Valley.
Maharashtra Wardha Valley Kamptee, Bandar, Warora, Rajur (Wun), Ghugus – Telwasa, Chanda, Ballarpur, Wamanapalli, Antargaon – Aksapur, Sasti – Rajpura.
Orissa Mahanadi Valley Talcher, Ib river (Rampur – Hingir).
Andhra Pradesh Pranhita – Godavari Valley Tandur Kanala, North Godavari, South Godavari, Jangam, Chinur-Sendrapalli, Kamavaram, Bandala – Alapalli, Singareni (yellendu), Lingala, Kothagudium, Damar-cherla, Kannergiri, Beddadanuru.
Uttar Pradesh   Kota (in Mirzapur District)
Assam   Abor, Aka and Daphla Hills
Sikkim   Ranjit Valley

b) Upper Gondowana Coalfields in India:

State Sub Division Coalfields
Gujrat   Ghunkeri
Madhapradesh Satpura Region Hard River Valley
Maharashtra   Kota, Chikiyala

C) Tertiary Coalfields in India:

State Sub Division Coalfields
Assam Upper Assam Namphuk, Namchik, Makum, Jaipur, Nazira, Janji, Disai
Mikir Hills Longloi Hills, Dissoma River, Numbor River, Doigrung River, Koilapahar
Khasi and Jaintia Hills Langrin, Barsoura, Wah, Rongah Valley, Lakma, Umasur, Charigaon, Cherrapunji, Um Rileng, Mawlong, Mawbehlarkar, Rangsonoba, Lairango, Jarain, Lakadong, Satunga
Garo Hills Karaibari, Rongreggiri, Daranggiri, Tura, Sogring, Waimong
Jammu and Kashmir   Kalakoth, Methka, Mahogala, Chakar, Dhanswal-Sawalkot, Ladda, Chinkah, Kashmir Valley lignites
Rajasthan   Palana (in Bikanir)
Madras   Neyveli (South Arkot), Cuddalore – Pondicherry Area
Kerala   Varkala, Quilon
Gujrat   Umarsar (in Kutch)

Note: It is really very hard to find any good book on coals in India. I have used “Advanced Coal Mining” by B.M Vorobjev and R.T Deshmukh published in 1964! If you know some good reference other than the book I mentioned, please let us know.

About Editor 5164 Articles
Ankan Basu is a Certified Professional Geologist (CPG) with 10+ years of experience in the field of geology, hydrogeology and geochemistry.

12 Comments on Distribution of Coal in India

  1. intersted in sharing geology of rajmahhal coalfield ADD S R I Rizvi HOD GEOLOGY SAHIBGANJ COLLEGE SAHIBGANJ 816109 JHARKHAND INDIA

  2. Would like to know about geology of Pachwara block in Rajmahal coalfields. Coulld you please help and send some information. Is the Area reserve forest?

  3. need to know more about coal didtribution in India!!!!!
    pls help me!!!
    where can i find maps on the distribution of coal mines in IndIA?????????????

  4. Hi Ankan, Thanks for sharing Distribution of Coal in India.
    Could you please manage to give some porosity permeability data of Barakar Sandstone of Damoday Valley Coal Fields? and Cross Sections, Coal Characters, maps of Singrauli Coal Fields? If not then please let me know where i can find all these…


    Soumen Dutta

  5. i want some matter on 1.geological ang geographical distribution of coal.
    2. detailed geology of some importent coal fields in india
    3. coal forming epochs in the geological past

  6. I want to know the tertiary coal properties ie proximate and ultimate analysis of Meghalaya and assam coal(Tertiary).ffom which book i can get proximate analysis of indian tertiary coal.

  7. We need about coal mines acquisition in North East states specially in Aunachal Pradesh and its process. Also need to know about teh quality of coal avialable there.
    Reply on matter will be obliged.

    B Regards

    Kamal Pokhariyal

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