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How Olivine could Help Coal Mining! Mineral from the deep earth

The mineral olivine (when gem-quality also called peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. Olivine is the earliest mineral to form from a cooling magma.

Everyone is looking for cheap processes to sequester CO2 by mineral reactions. Removal by reactions with olivine could be an attractive option, because it is widely available and reacts easily with the (acid) CO2 from the atmosphere. When olivine is crushed, it weathers completely within a few years, depending on the grain size. All the CO2 that is produced by burning 1 liter of oil can be sequestered by less than 1 liter of olivine. The reaction is exothermic but slow. In order to recover the heat produced by the reaction to produce electricity, a large volume of olivine must be thermally well isolated. The end-products of the reaction are silicon dioxide, magnesium carbonate and small amounts of iron oxide.

Coal Industry produces considerable amount of CO2. Carbon sequestration using olivine could be one way to prevent the free emission of greenhouses gases.

Lets look at some of the properties of Olivine.

Olivine, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4
Olivine, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4

It is a common mineral in the Earth’s subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.

The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember) and fayalite (Fe-endmember).

Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e.g., Fo70Fa30).

Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure, almost 1900 °C, but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C).

The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers, as do other properties. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen, silicon, magnesium and iron. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations.

Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure (the olivine group) which includes tephroite (Mn2SiO4), monticellite (CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4).

Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel), though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron.

Olivine microcrystals
Olivine microcrystals

Olivine microcrystals extracted sand from a beach in Hawaii (Oahu Island) – field width = 5.5 mm

Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks.
Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth’s upper mantle, and olivine is one of the Earth’s most common minerals by volume.

How to form Olivine from Sedimentary rocks?
The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine, or forsterite.

Olivinine from Tahiti
Olivinine from Tahiti

Olivine microcrystals extracted sand taken from the River Hitiaa (Tahiti) – field width = 5.5 mm

Fe-rich olivine is relatively much less common, but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites.
Mg-rich olivine has also been discovered in meteorites, on Mars and on the Moon.


The atomic scale structure of olivine looking along the a axis. Oxygen is shown in red, silicon in pink, and magnesium/iron in blue. A projection of the unit cell is shown by the black rectangle.

Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbnm) with isolated silicate tetrahedra, meaning that olivine is a nesosilicate. In an alternative view, the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal, close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivine

Olivine is named for its typically olive-green color (thought to be a result of traces of nickel), though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron.

Green Energy–Environment Issues and Global Politics

Go Green
Go Green

July 1, 2011 (Coal Geology): As we all know, the five lettered word GREEN is one of the fundamental colours. But, the revised 7th edition of “The Little Oxford Dictionary“ edited by Maurice Waite attaches a more useful meaning – “Green is concerned with protection of environment / not harmful to environment / supporter of protection of environment.” So it is implied that the Green Energy is neatly intertwined with the issue of environmental protection.

Historical Evolution of Energy

The need for energy has ever been felt since the birth of this planet on our solar system. In the Ice Age man would live in places where there were no glaciers and bathed in sunlight to keep him warm. It was followed by the Stone Age, so named, as man made all his tools with stones. By sharpening the edges of stones, he developed better weapons for hunting as well as to protect himself for self defense and keeping away the wild beasts. In this age, the Palaeolithic man experienced usable form of natural energy when they saw nature playing its magic –he witnessed large scale forest-fire, possibly by rubbing together of dry trees giving out heat and light energy. Aghast at first, but its warmth comforted man. It reposed faith in him and the journey of civilization took its root. Man, rather Ape-Man started striking together flint-stones to generate sparks, the primary source of man-made energy and he used these sparks to set fire to twigs, dry leaves and unknowingly similar inflammable materials that gave him enormous comfort in winter.  Gradually he developed the habit of roasting his preys and illuminating cave and other dwelling places.

Means of knowing was thus based on practical experience and therefore development of knowledge was extraordinarily uneven. This light and shade of knowledge added to the improvement in living conditions in terms of food and safety, possibly, gave him leisure to think and geared him gradually with immeasurable greater power. So as the Copper Age and Iron Age dawned, man started using metals, making tools and utensils. Experience gave him wisdom. History reveals that the post stone age, termed as the regime of Neolithic Man, is densely dotted with many creative activities and the wheel of civilization kept on pacing onwards. The Palaeolithic Man and later, the Neolithic Man just alluded, had lived perhaps 10000 years ago – nobody knows the exact period. However as we got nearer to our present age, the changes that came were not sudden but gradual, as is nature’s way. But that the spark of two pieces of flint-stones essentially played the most crucial role, leading to successive events, shaping human civilization.

Today we know that the energy exists in various forms – mechanical, electrical, thermal, chemical, acoustic etc. and surprisingly they are convertible, meaning that one form can be transformed into another. The Ape-man produced sparks, form of both heat and light energies by mechanically rubbing together a pair of flint-stones. By this, he unknowingly demonstrated the conversion of mechanical energy to heat and light energies. However it is important to know that the primary source of all these energies is the Sun, which is a source of pure GREEN Energy. So we see that the nature’s gift to its creatures for their sustenance was cent percent green energy. But the advancement of human progress, particularly in last two centuries, discovered that this wonderful gift was practically of no use unless they are available in a much better organized and concentrated form. To shape it into proper form, several procedural steps are needed (Commercial Conventional Energy) that inherently generates pollution. It’s like jewellery – unless some base metal is added to pure gold, which essentially amounts to mixing impurities to it, it doesn’t shape into any useful ornament.

Electrical Energy is the only form of energy available handy as it can be transported so easily using electrical conductors. So in our discussion we will ponder only on the sources of electrical energy that is to say various types of power plants generating electrical energy.

The cornerstone of generation of electrical energy for mankind as well as industries and several other areas lay in the crowning discovery of the principles of electromagnetic induction by Michael Faraday way back in 1831. Electric Generator had brought a revolution on the outlook on life and the way of living.

Conventional and Unconventional sources of Energy

Having had a brief prefatory discussion on the evolution of energy, we are now prepared to enter into the subject based on the electrical energy – the energy we use every day at our home, in offices, in industries, airports …… the list is almost unending. Urban life in general is totally dependent on this energy. The source of this energy is termed as conventional source of energy and they are really large scale sources, producing scores of hundreds of megawatts of power. Under this category we have thermal power plant, using fossil fuels like coal, mineral oil and natural gas as the primary input of energy. We have also hydel power using potential energy of water-head as the input energy source and finally the nuclear power obtained by nuclear fission by bombarding fissile material like specific isotope of uranium by slow neutron. Out of these, hydel power, though eco-unfriendly but is totally green, meaning the power plant doesn’t emit greenhouse gases. Again, the nuclear energy is really green for all practical purposes. Nuclear power is not only eco friendly, but the power plant has hardly any scope of emitting greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide, causing environmental changes detrimental to improved living standard of mankind in the long run. Neither it liberates pollutants like sulphur dioxide, lethal gases of nitrogen, carbon monoxide etc. that are deceptively threatening to human health. Is it that nuclear power is really free from all problems? The answer is no. Nuclear wastes are really dangerous.  But technology for containment of waste is not only very much proven, but are continuously being improved for more than five decades We will discuss in details when we talk about nuclear power as it is the only large scale source of green energy for all practical purposes. Thermal power plants suffer from all these serious defects. Curiously the conventional sources of energy, but for the hydel power, is also termed as the Non-Renewable source of energy for the simple reason that the chemical energy trapped in fossil fuels or the nuclear energy dormant in the bound  state of nucleus of fissile materials once utilized, cannot be replenished by normal natural phenomenon. Once used up, it will mean the depletion of its reserve resource. This also implies that the earth’s reserve sources of energy are fast declining and we will discuss in details when we talk about the issue of energy crisis.

Now the question lurks in mind, is there any such thing as Unconventional sources of energy? Indeed there is. They are renewable too.  Most importantly, these are the sources of green energies. Under this head falls Sun, Wind, Geothermal, Biomass etc. We will discuss pros and cons of all these later. Presently there is just about only 1% consumption from these sources globally as no methods of practices have yet been standardized. These forms of energies are unable to compete with its conventional counterpart in terms of quantity, quality and prices. But they are coming up rapidly because of their renewable nature, keeping in mind that the nature’s reserve is fast decreasing as the demand for energy, an essential element for sustenance, is increasing daily as the world’s population, particularly in Asian countries, continues to increase at the rate of quarter of a million people per day. So, because of its renewable nature, mankind has to heavily depend upon such energy resources in days to come and these kind of sources are already associated with a befitting title “Alternative Energy Sources“. Before finishing this part of the essay, J would like to add that the conventional energy sources are justly prefixed by researchers and academicians by adding another befitting word “Commercial” and it takes the name “Commercial Conventional Energy Sources”. They are generated in large scale and necessarily for large mass. The term commercial has very important implication. It refers to availability of such energy resources easily and at affordable cost. It has been possible as the practices – in terms of handling fuels, particularly fossil fuels, the steps involved right from their mining, transportation, through generation of power – are technologically more than a century old and therefore thoroughly proven and commercially competitive. Whereas, procedural steps needed to generate power from renewable sources, better to say alternative sources are still in the development stage and thus yet to be commercially competitive besides its limitations in terms of scale of generation when compared with its conventional counterpart.

Environment and Political Issues

Now, the time has come to keep the environment clean and green to save the most worthy planet, our mother Earth. From the poisonous gas exhaled by huge exhausts devouring a lot of fossil fuel, we can fathom the amount of waste as well as the environmental pollution. The fossil fuel is fast diminishing causing the destruction of eco-diversity.

The ecological costs are being shifted from the rich to the poorer countries in an increasingly globalized world. Conferences and meetings involving top leaders of countries all over the globe , are being organized since last couple of years, but without any agreement, rather the talks proceed in reverse gear, the simple reason being is that the interest of the more industrialized western world contributing on an average 15 – 20 times more to the global pollution, is not met. Moreover, they are trying both cajoling and threats in refined form on the lesser developed and even poor countries to sacrifice in terms of emission of greenhouse gases that indirectly will mean lessening their industrialization and therefore development.

One can hardly deny that the environmental crisis deepens. During last several years, the frequency of storms like Katrina has increased significantly. During last six years observations of satellite pictures of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh, revealed only 100 islands out of 102 reported earlier. According to scientists, it is said that due to the rise in sea level two islands got submerged and vanished. The grave and devastating incident of Tsunami in Indonesia and Indian coast are fresh in mind. On BBC television news it is often seen that flash floods have taken place in spots of USA, Germany, France, China. It is curious to note that during last one year a number of disasters had taken place one after another. One can see heavy fog over Kremlin, Moscow, but the temperature indicated 42 degree Celcius. This was followed by wild spread forest-fire ravaging areas around Moscow. On the television screen, one could see the brick-red colour of the sky above the trees and through trees one could catch glimpses of leaping orange flames. An immense iceberg four times the size of Manhattan has parted ways with a polar glacier in Greenland.

 That is not all. Around the same point of time, we witnessed the tragic pictures from Pakistan, where devastating floods have displaced 15 million people and killed a couple of thousands. On 11th August 2010 a mudslide hit Drugchu on Tibetan Prefecture. On the very next day on the other end of the Tibetan worlds an intense cloud cluster developed over Leh. It started with a drizzle that suddenly became an absolute deluge, resulted in 250 mm of rainfall within an hour. The phenomenon was very local as an Air Force observatory some distance away from the cloud burst zone recorded only 12.5 mm of rain. And now the latest one and perhaps the worst among all these was the massive tsunami on 11th March, 2011. Triggered by Japan’s most powerful earthquake (9.0 in Richter scale) in nearly a century, it caused devastation in north coastal Japan sweeping away houses, ships, cars, seting ablaze several buildings and a major petro chemical plant and killing over six thousand people. Nature’s rage didn’t end there – the tsunami images showed explosion of three nuclear reactors on almost successive days triggering radioactive leaks.

Seemingly disconnected, these widely scattered disasters are pointing to the question of whether global warming is causing weather extremes. There is an unbroken chain of cause and effect running through the whole process. If you disturb nature too much it’s going to react violently. Quoting J. Lawrimore, chief of Climate Analysis of the National Climate Data Centre in Ashville, USA “The climate is changing, extreme events are occurring with greater frequency and in many cases with greater intensity.”

It is hoped though with diffidence that the decision makers about the wider world are expected to give conscious part of their thought and not allow public sentiment or emotion to dominate while choosing many alternative sources of large scale energy so that our planet may have minimum share of pollution from power generating sources.

Pollution measurement standards

Globally, why every government including my country is allocating substantial funds in quest of green energy? This trend is particularly significant during past decade. In the beginning of this article the meaning of the word “GREEN” has been unfolded. Besides usual meaning it is synonymous with “environmental protection”.

Considering the significant source of greenhouse gas emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, accumulating in the atmosphere, fossil fuel energy is viewed as increasingly socially irresponsible. The greenhouse gases contributing to global warming consist of, besides carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of sulphur, methane and methane like organic gases. These gases are sensitive to trap solar radiation and thus causing greenhouse effect. Other pollutants causing change of environment are lead, oil, cadmium, mercury etc. Numerous approaches have been proposed to estimate these pollutants. The two very important pointers are: Human Disruption Index (HDI) and Carbon Footprint. A brief discussion followed by some data will help understanding intuitively the level of atmospheric pollution as a whole including global warming. It is worth noting that the measurement method using carbon footprint is most recent. First we take the case of HDI. HDI is essentially a measure of the extent to which human activities disrupt or alter the environment. Unlike Carbon Footprint, HDI takes into account a larger number of pollutants like lead, cadmium, mercury, toxic particles, oxides of nitrogen etc. In a more scientific manner, it is defined as a ratio of human generated emissions to the natural flow also called base line flow. The following table shows the degree to which human activities disrupt natural cycle.



Lead 15
Oil to Ocean 10
Cadmium 8
Sulphur dioxide 1.4
Mercury 0.7
Toxic Particles 0.3
N2O 0.4

It means we mobilize 15 times more lead than is naturally mobilized, mainly through burning leaded gasoline, for example, which fortunately is decreasing around the world. We spill 10 times more oil in the ocean than occur naturally and more cadmium, sulphur, mercury etc. The atmospheric stock of some greenhouse gases has been measured to be more than two times the natural level and we have increased the carbon dioxide level by 30%. Although manufacturing, agriculture and other sectors have impacts, energy plays the largest role in adding to these and other global flows.

And the more recent measurement technique termed Carbon Footprint will indicate the contribution of carbon dioxide and its equivalent from various forms of energy generation. But we must define Carbon Footprint. A Carbon Footprint is the total set of greenhouse gas emission caused by an organization, event, product or person. It is a drab definition. It demands some clarification so that it is intuitively understood by non experts. One should give attention to bold faced words in the earlier definition. A better definition is “A carbon Footprint is a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted through the combustion of fossil fuels. In the case of a business organization it is the amount of CO2 emitted either directly or indirectly as a result of its everyday operations. It also might reflect the fossil energy represented in a product or commodity reaching market.” A simple example will clarify the point. When I am storing this article in my hard disk, I am releasing some carbon into the environment! Yes it is. When I respire, I give out CO2. This is my personal share to greenhouse gas. This is direct emission. The disk storing my file is powered by some energy source. That small share of energy is generated by burning some fuel at the power plant that contributes to GHG. This contribution of GHG is indirect. The method of Carbon Footprint has become so popular that the Carbon Footprint calculators are available on Net.

Emission Factors of Common Fuels

Fuel Resource


g(CO2-eq )/ kW-h(electricity)

Coal 955
Oil 893
Natural gas 599
Geothermal Power 91 – 122
Uranium Nuclear Power 65
Hydroelectricity 15
Conc. Solar Power 40 ± 15
Photovoltaic 106
Wind Power 21

These studies thus concluded that hydroelectric, wind and nuclear power always produced the least CO2 per kilowatt-hour of any other electricity sources. It is important to note that these figures do not allow for emissions due to accidents or terrorism. Renewable electricity generation methods, for example wind power and hydropower, emit no carbon from the operation, but do leave a footprint during construction phase and maintenance during operation.

Large Scale Green Energy from Atomic Power

Let us discuss the principle of generation of atomic power. When Uranium-235, whose presence in nature is just about 0.7%, is bombarded by slow neutrons, called thermal neutrons, it splits into two smaller fragments with the release of some amount of energy. One can look into the finer aspect of this mysterious energy. The combined mass of the fragments is found to be less than the original mass of the atom. This is known as the mass defect. And this difference of mass is converted into energy by Einestein’s famous relation E = mc2, where m is called the rest mass and c the velocity of light equals 300,000 km/sec. The entire process is known as nuclear fission. It is worth mentioning that fission of just one Uranium-235 nucleus will generate about 200 Million electron volt of energy which is quantitatively a trivial amount of energy. But if a significant amount of Uranium-235, which contains billions and billions of Uranium nucleus, is organized to sustain a chain reaction in a very short time, it will generate enormous amount of energy. In fact, this is the principle of atom bomb and we see why atom bomb is so devastating. The great Italian born American scientist Enrico Fermi discovered the technique of controlling the fission reaction so that energy could be generated in a controlled fashion and that eventually led to the birth of atomic reactor. Today we all know that the source of nuclear power is the atomic reactor where the heat or thermal energy liberated in the fission process is utilized to generate steam that is forced to move the turbine blades leading to generation of electrical energy. There are fissionable materials like Plutonium-239, an isotope of original Plutonium-238, which is obtained by feeding the original material with a neutron. Likewise naturally occurring Thorium-232 is fattened by pushing in a neutron to make it Thorium-233 which is equally fissionable like U235. It is worth noting that Thorium is three times more plentiful than Uranium and therefore considerably cheaper and breeder reactors – although limited in number in whole world – is not only used to generate nuclear power but to create more nuclear fuel, like Thorium-233, than it consumes. The whole description is more than oversimplified but I believe, this will serve the purpose for this article.

Population, Energy and Environment

There is a relationship among population, energy use and the environment. The environmental impact is a function not only of population but on the affluence of the population as affluent countries use more energy and therefore emit more greenhouse gases. At present the difference in the standard of living between the developed countries and the developing/under developed countries is amazingly high and it is worth noting that only 30% of world population is consuming far more energy and responsible for emission of 75% of total emission of GHG. The per capita carbon emission among the following four listed countries will show the difference.



Metric ton of carbon


USA 20.10
Japan 9.87
European Union 9.40
India 1.02

The world population continues to grow at a quarter of a million per day increasing the energy consumption. In 1850, the world population was only 1260 million. In 2000, it was 6783.4 million. Accommodating this 5 to 6 times of population during last 150 years necessitated to look for new dwelling places and proportionately more cultivable land for producing food. A vast area of forest, which was full of green cover, had to be destroyed. Because of the reduction of this green cover, the rate of carbon removal from environment by the process of photosynthesis has reduced, thus increasing the greenhouse gas in the environment. The following table is very indicative to establish the share of energy use due to population and affluence.



Overall Energy % due to growth

Annual rate of population growth


1890 – 1990



1970 –  1990




1965 – 1989




1890 – 1990



1970 – 1990




1965 – 1989




1965 – 1989



Korea, Rep.

1965 – 1989




1985 – 1989




1965 – 1989



We will discuss the first data of the table which will explain its significance. The data indicates that the world energy use for 1890 – 1990 increased by an average of 6% per year. About half (49%) of it was due to population growth, the rest due to increased affluence. Interestingly, in more recent times, 1970 – 1990, population growth was 84%. In other words, if there had been no population growth but the same increase in affluence between 1970 and 1990 there would have been 84% less energy use during that period.

Combating Emergency Crises for Energy

Even countries rich in fossil fuels are now seeing rapid inroads into their reserves. Fossil fuel should be reserved to combat the oil crisis in order to meet the national emergency in future. There may be many reasons for crisis. In this turbulent socio-economic situation of the world, the major Arab oil producing states may cause a serious bottleneck. There are instances: 1973 oil crisis caused by an OPEC oil export embargo by many oil rich Arab countries in protest against western support of Israel during the Yom Kipper war, 1979 oil crisis caused by the Iranian revolution, 1990 oil price shock caused by the Gulf war, to name a few. Attacks by terrorist or militia on important infrastructure with successful strike on facilities, may potentially cause global shortage.

Fusion: The Next Step?

So far we have seen that taming the atom bomb reaction, the nuclear power could be generated. The process involved was fission where a heavy nucleus like Uranium-235 splits into two light nuclei with the release of some energy. If man can tame the reactions in which nuclei of atoms are fused rather than split, he will have an almost limitless source of energy, and almost a pure form of green energy. The problem, although known for a long time, is now being attacked in laboratories all over the world.

The principle of releasing energy by fusion is by combining together two light nuclei into one. Here again part of the mass of the fusing light nuclei is transformed into energy according to Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2. But in this sort of fusing a great deal of energy has to be put in to make a few nuclei fuse. There can be no net yield of energy from fusion unless it proceeds by a self sustaining reaction, as, for example, in the interior of the sun. This is accomplished in a number of steps in the centre of the sun where the particles are held together at enormous pressure and a temperature of about two million degree centigrade. One place where high pressure and multi-million degree temperature is available is in the immediate vicinity of an exploding atom bomb. When the bomb explodes, it provides an environment in which the light nuclei are forced to come together and cause fusion and release still more energy. Such a procedure, however, is far from satisfactory for operating a power plant. Intensive work is being carried out by all countries that have necessary financial and scientific resources, in an effort to find some practical way of maintaining a steady, controllable flow of energy from nuclear fusion reactions. The ingredients for fusion are plentiful. For example hydrogen and its heavier isotopes like deuterium and tritium. The reactions are like collision of H-H/D-D/D-T. D-D collision is the most popular as it is plentiful at the same time it is easy to separate from common hydrogen. An academic exercise as mentioned by George Gamow will give the feel of the energy availability from fusion reaction. In all the waters of the oceans, about 1 hydrogen in 6500 is Deuterium isotope. If the deuterium in a single cubic meter of water were to be put through the D-D fusion process, it would release energy equal to the burning of 2000 barrels of oil. One cubic kilometer of water would yield about as much energy as the world’s all of the known oil reserves. And fusion produces no appreciable amount of radioactive by-products. So energy from fusion is the ideal green energy. But a number of major breakthroughs is still needed and one can’t predict when that will be achieved. The time needed may be measured in years, in decades or in scores of decades. Meanwhile the end of our petroleum resources lies just over the horizon. As for the nuclear fuel viz., the world’s Uranium and Thorium reserve, it is estimated, represent an energy reserve somewhere between 10 and 100 times larger than its remaining coal. Practically all of the economically recoverable Uranium and Thorium might be exhausted within another few centuries. Although today the only large scale clean power is nuclear power and it contributes to 16% energy to global power, it should not all be nuclear for two reasons. First, from the cost point of view, generation of nuclear power is at best competitive with the power generation cost from all other conventional sources without taking into account of the decommissioning (dismantling of a nuclear power plant and decontamination of a site to a state no longer requiring protection from radiation for the general public) cost of the nuclear power plant. These power plants are designed for a 40 – 60 years of operating life. None of the nuclear power plants of India has so far been decommissioned. So there is no data available regarding decommissioning cost. So we take the example from one of those who has gone through this exercise. Decommissioning is very expensive. The current estimate by the United Kingdom’s Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is that, it will cost at least 70 billion pounds to decommission the 19 existing United Kingdom nuclear sites. Also due to radioactivity in the reactor structure, decommissioning is a slow process which takes place in stages. The plans of the NDA for decommissioning reactors have an average of 50 years of time frame. The long time frame makes reliable cost estimate extremely difficult and excessive cost overrun is not uncommon.

Secondly, had this been not expensive in the long run, the cost conscious jingoistic Americans would have gone for all nuclear energy. USA’s electricity generation from nuclear energy is just about 25% – 30% of total demand. The reason is perhaps not really the long term cost. It is even more serious. If the present total power needs of only USA, not to mention the whole world, are supplied by nuclear reactors, they have to dispose each year an amount of radioactive product equal to that from 200,000 atom bombs. So it is clear that with the increasing use of power which is imminent with time, as the population increases, the radioactive wastes will increase enormously and the problems of their safe disposal in the coming age of nuclear power will soon become staggering. Used fuel taken out of a reactor is highly radioactive and remains dangerous for thousands of years.


Electricity from NPP











Top 5 countries using electricity from Nuclear Power Plants

In this article we have deliberately omitted detailed discussion on two more sources of green energy namely, electricity generation from wind and from the sun as we are concerned only with the large scale practical source of green energy. The following table will succinctly reflect the handicaps of other sources when compared with the nuclear power.

But the good news is round the corner. The highest nuclear power producing country in the world is France, that has come with the great idea to recycle this “waste”, transforming it into a valuable energy source for the future. According to French nuclear scientists, about 95% of all used fuel could be reprocessed for future use. Philippe Pradel, vice-president of GDF Suez, one of the world’s leading energy producers claim that the reprocessing program has been successfully applied and “France now has fuel for thousands of years.” About 4% of today’s spent fuel is true “high level” waste that needs careful attention for storage for centuries. These wastes, mixed with the raw ingredients of glass at volcanic temperatures, put into steel canisters and stored in vertical shafts pending development of storage deep underground. Compared with the mountains of ash, acid, dust and toxic chemicals emitted by coal or oil-fired power stations, a year’s high-level nuclear waste per person is estimated to be about five grams.

Power Source




Production Pattern Consistent Inconsistent, even at their best generates power, only 22% of the time Inconsistent, do not work in bad weather or dark conditions
  (Backing system running on fossil fuels must be kept running on standby. So all the advantages of reduced emission are lost.)
Scale of Production High Low Low
Cost Reasonable Very High Very High


[1].  http://unu.edu/unupress/lecture6.html, Kirk R. Smith, “The Most Important Chart in the World”.

[2].  Nu-Power, An International Journal of Nuclear Power Vol. 22-4 (2008), June 2009.

[3].  G. Chakraborty, “Global warming: Means to Arrest”.

[4].  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_crisis

[5].  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_footprint

[6].  Thomas Wiedmann and Jan Minx, “A Definition of ‘Carbon Footprint’”, ISAUK Research Report 07-01.

[7].  B.K. De, “Introduction to Energy Management”.

[8].  George Gamow, “Foundations and Frontiers of Physics”.

[9].  The Statesman.

[10].          Scientific American.

[11].          Reader’s Digest, April 2011.

Author: Swapan Kumar De

Carbon Capture Technology to Capture 150,000 Tons of CO2 Annually at Coal-fired Power Plant

June 15, 2011, NEW YORK, (Coal Geology)- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. (MHIA) has announced  the successful start of operations of a 25 Megawatt carbon capture facility at Southern Company’s Plant Barry, owned and operated by Alabama Power.

This facility utilizes the KM CDR Process®* capture technology, jointly developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.

An aerial view of the 500 ton per day CO2 capture facility
An aerial view of the 500 ton per day CO2 capture facility

Built in collaboration with Southern Company, it is the world’s largest Carbon Capture and Sequestration facility attached to a coal-fired power plant using a proven capture technology. It will capture approximately 150,000 tons of CO2 annually (500 tons/day) for permanent underground storage in a deep saline geologic formation.

MHIA President & CEO Mitch Morimoto stated, “This is a significant milestone and is part of our strategic effort to commercialize our KM CDR Process® CO2 technology.  Coal is abundant and relatively cheap, so it is important for world energy security and environmental protection to develop technologies and to find ways to preserve coal as a fuel source. The KM CDR Process® is just one of a suite of technologies we have been developing toward making coal an environmentally acceptable fuel for the future.”

MHI’s KM CDR Process® technology uses an advanced solvent called KS-1 to capture the CO2 from a flue gas stack.  The flue gas is directed to the KM CDR Process® where the KS-1 solvent reacts with and captures the CO2.  CO2 can then be separated from the KS-1 and compressed for pipeline transport.

Captured CO2 will be supplied to the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership and transported roughly 11 miles by pipeline before injection 9,500 feet below the Citronelle Oil Field operated by Denbury Resources.  The CO2 will remain underground, permanently trapped in the geologic formation.

*The KM CDR Process is a registered trademark of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., in Japan, the United States of America, the European Union (CTM), Norway, Australia, and China.

About Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.

MHIA is a wholly owned subsidiary of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)  MHIA’s divisions include Transportation Systems, Tire Machinery,  Aircraft Product Support, Corrugating Machinery, Machine Tools, Environmental Systems and Injection Molding Machinery. MHIA affiliates include MLP U.S.A., Inc. (Printing Presses), Mitsubishi Engine North America, Inc. (Engines and Turbo-chargers), Mitsubishi Power Systems America, Inc., (Power Systems), Intercontinental Jet Service Corp. (Sales, Repair and Maintenance of MU-2 and MU-300 Aircraft) and Crystal Mover Services, Inc. (Operation and Maintenance of Automated People Movers).

SOURCE Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.

CONTACT: Michael Ivey, Michael_Ivey@mhiahq.com (Washington Office) or Toshihiko Kano, Toshihiko_Kano@mhiahq.com (Washington Office), +1-202-828-1212, or Steven Holton, Steven_Holton@mhiahq.com (Environmental Systems Division)

Web Site: http://www.mitsubishitoday.com

Daily FOREX Review for April 4: The Dollar mostly weakened versus the major currencies

April 4, 2011 (Coal Geology): Daily FOREX Review for April 4: The Dollar mostly weakened versus the major currencies


USD Dollar (USD) – The Dollar mostly weakened versus the major currencies after the Unemployment Rate came out at 8.80%, better than the expected 8.90% and the Nonfarm Payrolls came out last Friday at 230K, better than the expected 203K, which makes investors prefer higher risk currencies over the USD. The Finance markets in the U.S. closed positive as the Dow Jones rose by 0.46% and the NASDAQ gained 0.31%.  Crude Oil rose by 1.1% and closed at $107.94 a barrel, due to positive data from the US and instability in North Africa. Gold (XAU) fell by 0.8% and closed at $1,428.90 per ounce.  Today, Chicago Fed President Evans will speak.

Euro (EUR) – The EUR/USD reversed sharply on Friday, erasing losses and posting its highest weekly close since January of 2010. The pair did not reach fresh highs over the week but finished between 1.4220/30. The most important event for the euro this week is the interest rate decision that will come out on the 7th, where expectations are that there will be a rate hike of 25 basis points (0.25%). The Unemployment Rate came out at 9.90%, which is unchanged from the previous report. The EUR/USD is facing a resistance at 1.4280 and once it breaks this level, it will continue to 1.4400. Overall, EUR/USD traded with a low of 1.4062 and with a high of 1.4245. Today, no major economic data is expected.

EUR/USD – Last:  1.4220

Resistance 1.4240 1.4280 1.4400
Support 1.4200 1.4147 1.4113

British Pound (GBP) – The Pound declined against the greenback at the beginning of last Friday after the Manufacturing PMI came out at 57.10, worse than the expected 60.90. But, when the NFP came out, the pair jumped more than 130 pips and closed the week at 1.6107. Holding above the critical support zones of 1.6080 will push the pair higher once again. Overall, GBP/USD traded with a low of 1.5971 and with a high of 1.6132. Today, no major economic data is expected.

GBP/USD – Last: 1.6135

Resistance 1.6150 1.6182
Support 1.6038 1.6000 1.5975

Japanese Yen (JPY) – The USD/JPY rose on Friday to 84.79, reaching its highest level in 6 months. The pair retreated afterwards towards 84.00, but still managed to post a weekly gain of more than 250 pips, the biggest since November of 2009. The momentum is bullish, but faces a strong resistance at 84.80. Overall, USD/JPY traded with a low of 83.12 and with a high of 84.73. No economic data is expected today.

USD/JPY – Last: 84.22

Resistance 84.75 85.60
Support 83.27 82.75 81.69

Canadian dollar (CAD) – The Canadian Dollar strengthened against the U.S. dollar throughout the last week as Crude Oil prices climbed to its highest level since Sept. 2008, reaching $108.40 a barrel. If oil prices will continue to strengthen, it may bring the pair to new record lows. In addition, the GDP is expected to rise by 0.50%, as it had previously. Overall, USD/CAD traded with a low of 0.9625 and with a high of 0.9707. Today, the BOC Business Outlook Survey is expected.

USD/CAD – Last: 0.9623

Resistance 0.9653 0.9684 0.9739
Support 0.9600 0.9580


Research: Only 44 percent of U.S. households had individual life insurance

Buying life insurance is a fundamental step in keeping you and your family safe
Buying life insurance is a fundamental step in keeping you and your family safe

April 2, 2011, (Coal Geology / NewsUSA) – According to a recent study published by the Life Insurance and Market Research Association, last year only 44 percent of U.S. households had individual life insurance, and 30 percent of U.S. households had no coverage at all.

These statistics come at a time when using life insurance for both its protection benefit and as a way to build cash has never made more sense. Once pillars of financial stability, home equity, defined benefit plans, 401(k) matches and social security are now under threat. Under these circumstances, funding a college education, launching a new business or meeting an unexpected health emergency are daunting and cannot easily be resolved with many of yesterday’s financial solutions.

A permanent life insurance policy that is reviewed and updated on a regular basis protects more than just assets. It brings stability and can help you take advantage of so many of life’s possibilities.

If you are thinking about buying life insurance or increasing the amount of coverage you already have, here are some common misperceptions you should know:

Life insurance is a death benefit only. In addition to a death benefit, permanent life insurance offers cash value accumulation. This money can be used to cover all kinds of life expenses for you and your family, or, small business.

Buying term insurance with a minimum amount of death benefit and putting the rest of your money in other investments is the way to go. While death protection is important, permanent life insurance offers that protection and cash accumulation, thereby meeting your needs as they evolve throughout your lifetime.

Life insurance matters only when you have children. Life insurance can fulfill many different needs aside from protecting children. For instance, you can access the cash value of a permanent policy to help grow a business or fund a favorite philanthropy.

Life insurance is a monthly bill. Premium payments on a permanent life insurance policy are an investment in your future. A permanent policy is like paying yourself, as the policy accumulates cash value over time that can be used when and however needed.

For more information about all of life’s possibilities that life insurance may fulfill, please visit www.pennmutual.com.

Bathing suit season: girltrunks Are Making a Splash

Swim trunks for women make it so you look great and feel confident on the beach
Swim trunks for women make it so you look great and feel confident on the beach

April 2, 2011, (Coal Geology/NewsUSA) – Bathing suit season. The words strike fear in the hearts of women of all sizes, conjuring images of teeny weeny bikinis and the inevitable wardrobe malfunctions. With bottoms that ride down and tops that ride up, women truly get the short end of the stick when it comes to summer swimwear.

That is, until now. Launched in 2009, Ohio-based designer Debbie Kuhn is bursting onto the market with a comfortable new concept that will have you gearing to go this summer: girltrunks. Kuhn designed the two-piece suits because the traditional swimsuit market offered nothing that covered the legs. After accepting an invitation to tube down the Madison River in Montana, she remembers futilely searching the racks at Nordstrom when she had a novel idea.

“Why don’t I pair a tankini top with men’s swim trunks?” said Kuhn. She did just that and wore her newly created swimwear in Montana. “It was a day in time I remember vividly. I felt so liberated, in swimwear of all things, and I wanted to share that feeling with other women.”

We’re glad she did. The trunks fit like Bermuda shorts and are made of a quick-drying polyamide material with mesh lining that dries almost instantly, unlike many traditional women’s bathing suits. They are available at www.mygirltrunks.com in sizes 4-24 and come in two leg-covering lengths. Pair the trunks with a halter or tank top that has a flattering fit and you have more than a swimsuit. You have an outfit — no cover-up needed.

Like their slogan, “Reinventing swimwear for women,” girltrunks deliver a sense of confidence women so desperately lack during bathing suit season. But the suits don’t just flatter — they’re versatile, too. Swimming, hiking, volleyball, waterparks and building sand castles on the beach; women’s swim trunks lend themselves to any activity. Short to tall, skinny to plus-sized, apple to pear, teenager to grandmother; women no longer must remain a prisoner to their beach towels. They now have the freedom to choose.

Homeownership still is an Integral Part of the American Dream

March 18, 2011, WASHINGTON, (Coal Geology):  Despite a historic real-estate market upheaval that sent foreclosure rates skyrocketing and home values plummeting, Americans still have a deep attachment to homeownership. Furthermore, they consider homeownership an integral part of an American Dream in which they still believe, according to poll results announced today by The Allstate Corporation (NYSE: ALL) and National Journal.

The 2009 HGTV Green Home.
The 2009 HGTV Green Home.

The eighth quarterly Allstate-National Journal Heartland Monitor Poll revealed that nearly nine out of 10 homeowners say they would buy their homes again. That percentage held true even among homeowners who said their home values had declined. Seven of 10 Americans say they would advise a friend or family member to buy a home as a long-term asset. However, while homeownership is perceived as a good personal decision, there is much greater uncertainty about whether expanding homeownership should be a government priority.

Although only 35% of respondents expect their personal financial situations to improve over the next year, three-fourths of those surveyed said it is still possible for people like them to achieve the American Dream, which the poll defined as the ability to advance as far as their talents will take them and live better than their parents did. A total of 59% said they currently are living the American Dream. Respondents identified owning your own home as one of the most critical parts of the American Dream, second only to raising a family.

“Owning a home continues to be the bedrock of the American Dream – even as incomes are down, jobs are scarce and families struggle to make ends meet,” said Thomas J. Wilson , Allstate chairman, president and chief executive officer. “Homeownership is viewed positively by the vast majority of Americans as both a place to raise a family and a sound investment. As a result, financial institutions and the government must work together to ensure that those who can afford their homes stay in them and this opportunity remains a viable alternative for all Americans.”

Despite their positive statements about owning a home, only 42% of those polled said that government’s push to expand homeownership created more stable communities, while 51% said these policies made communities less stable because it “encouraged people to take on too much debt” and led to foreclosures. Those surveyed split exactly in half—46% on each side—on the broad question of whether Washington should continue or scale back its efforts to promote homeownership through policies such as tax incentives for first-time buyers and the mortgage interest deduction.

“Homeownership retains a powerful, almost tidal, grip on the American imagination,” said Ronald Brownstein , editorial director of National Journal Group. “Even the economic experiences of the last several years don’t seem to have dimmed the yearning for ownership. But we do see that the public is much more ambivalent about whether the nation’s focus on expanding homeownership is a good thing for the country overall, with even the traditionally sacred cow of the mortgage tax deduction raising questions.”

A surprising 43% of survey respondents explicitly favored eliminating or limiting the tax break for mortgage interest. However, one reason may be that few Americans understand how they benefit from Washington’s role in homeownership. Three-fourths of homeowners said they have not benefited from any federal program to promote ownership, even though 71% of those owners acknowledged they take the mortgage interest deduction.

Key findings from the eighth Allstate-National Journal Heartland Monitor Poll (PDF) include:

1) Americans still believe in homeownership as a sound investment. A solid majority (70%) of Americans would advise a family member or close friends to buy a home to build long-term assets.

  • Just 27% disagree with this statement and say homeownership is too risky. This measure is essentially unchanged since the first Heartland survey in April 2009.
    • Young Americans (aged 18-29) are less convinced, with 49% who agree that homeownership is a sound investment and 49% who say it is too risky.
  • Asked to name the best investment, 24% of Americans say “buying a home,” which ranks behind “investing in retirement savings” (38%), but ahead of “saving money in the bank” (20%), and “investing in the stock market” (6%).
  • Most Americans (63%) believe that the current housing crisis is temporary and will improve over the next several years.
    • Surprisingly, 58% of those who believe the housing crisis will remain a serious problem would still recommend buying a home.

2) Most Americans (59%) say they are living the American Dream.

  • Those most likely to disagree include groups that typically have less of a safety net in a struggling economy: low-income households (51% disagree), those with a high-school education or less (43%), African-Americans (46%), and single mothers (68%).
  • Three-quarters of Americans believe the American Dream is still achievable for people like them.
  • 58% of Americans believe that the ability to achieve the American Dream is affected more by their own skills and hard work than by the state of the economy. This belief in hard work cuts across every demographic and socioeconomic subgroup.

3) Americans blame banks and borrowers more than the government for creating the housing crisis.

  • More than half of Americans (52%) blame the housing crisis on banks and lending institutions for misleading borrowers and approving bad loans, while 32% blame people who bought homes and took out mortgages they couldn’t afford, and only 12% blame government policies that encouraged too many people to try to own their own homes.
    • Republicans are equally likely to blame individuals (37%) and banks (38%) for the crisis.
  • Only 35% believe the federal government’s policies helped limit the crisis, while 32% think they made the crisis worse and 26% think they had little impact.

4) Americans are split on whether the federal government should continue policies to encourage homeownership at the same level (46%) or scale them back because they cost too much (46%).

  • There is a clear partisan dimension to this issue, as 59% of Democrats support continuing programs and 54% of Republicans support scaling them back.
  • Homeowners may not realize the true extent of government involvement in encouraging ownership and mortgage financing. Three of four homeowners (76%) say they have not benefited from any federal government policy to promote ownership, including 71% of those who take the mortgage deduction.

5) Americans’ opinions about the direction of the country, the economy, and President Obama have changed very little over the past year.

  • Americans are still pessimistic about the direction of the country, with 60% who say it is on the wrong track, unchanged from the last Heartland Monitor poll in December 2010.
    • Republicans are much more pessimistic (78% wrong track) than Democrats (41%).
  • President Obama remains a polarizing leader, with 49% who approve of the job he’s doing and 44% who disapprove.
    • Democrats approve by 79%-18%, independents are split at 47%-43%, and Republicans disapprove by 17%-78%.
  • When Americans are asked who they trust most to develop solutions to the country’s economic challenges, President Obama (40%) continues to maintain a slight edge over Republicans in Congress (36%). This measure has changed very little since January 2010.
  • Similarly, there has been little change in the perception of how Obama’s policies have affected the country, with 13% saying the country is significantly better off, 44% saying it is beginning to move in the right direction, and 36% saying it is significantly worse off.

Notes to Editors

Survey Methodology

National Sample of 1000 ADULTS AGE 18+

(Margin of Error = +/-3.1%)

Conducted March 4 – 8, 2011, among 800 adults via landline and 200 adults via cell phone.

About Allstate

The Allstate Corporation (NYSE: ALL) is the nation’s largest publicly held personal lines insurer. Widely known through the “You’re In Good Hands With Allstate®” slogan, Allstate is reinventing protection and retirement to help more than 17 million households insure what they have today and better prepare for tomorrow. Consumers access Allstate insurance products (auto, home, life and retirement) and services through Allstate agencies, independent agencies, and Allstate exclusive financial representatives in the U.S. and Canada, as well as via www.allstate.com and 1-800 Allstate®. For an overview of the other Allstate-National Journal Heartland Monitor Polls, visit http://www.allstate.com/heartland-monitor. Additional information is available at www.storiesfromtheheartland.com.

About National Journal Group

Since 1969, National Journal Group has provided insight for insiders through nonpartisan reporting on current political and policy issues as well as tools professionals need to do their jobs well. National Journal Group properties include National Journal, National Journal Daily, NationalJournal.com, The Hotline, The Almanac of American Politics and Global Security Newswire.

About FD

One of the most highly regarded consultancies in the communications industry, FD employs more than 750 staff and advises more than 1,000 clients worldwide through its hub offices in London and New York, as well as its network of wholly owned offices in Bahrain, Beijing, Bogota, Boston, Brussels, Cape Town, Chicago, Dubai, Dublin, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Los Angeles, Manchester, Melbourne, Moscow, Panama City, Paris, San Francisco, Shanghai, Sydney and Washington, DC.  With a 20-year history of advising clients in both the private and public sectors, FD’s services include financial public relations, capital markets communications, public affairs, crisis and issues management and corporate, business-to-business and business-to-consumer communications.  FD is also a market leader in M&A advisory work.  FD is structured around specialist sector teams operating on an international basis, covering consumer industries, financial services, basic industries, business services, life sciences & healthcare, media, real estate, technology and telecommunications.  FD is a division of FTI Consulting Inc. (NYSE: FCN), the global business advisory firm.  For more information, please visit www.fd.com.

SOURCE The Allstate Corporation

CONTACT: Jennifer Williams, Associate, FD, +1-212-850-5775, Jennifer.Williams@FD.com or Taylor West, Communications Director, National Journal Group, +1-202-266-7756, twest@nationaljournal.com

Web Site: http://www.allstate.com

Tsunami alerts following a 8.9 magnitude earthquake on the Pacific Rim countries

March 11, 2011, SEATTLE, (Coal Geology)- Asian, North American and South American countries on the Pacific Rim are facing tsunami alerts following a 8.9 magnitude earthquake, reported to have occurred near Japan’s east coast today.

“Our offices in Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands are on alert and staff in coastal areas have been advised, said Geoff Shepherd, World Vision’s Humanitarian and Emergency Affairs Director for the Asia-Pacific region. “We’ve also alerted our Global Rapid Response Team and have put team members on standby for possible deployment to affected areas. This could be a very serious disaster in multiple countries and our staff are prepared to respond.”


World Vision

  • World Vision is particularly concerned about those who would be most vulnerable in the island nations facing tsunami warnings.
  • World Vision currently has operations in the following countries that may be affected:
    • Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Solomon Is., Vanuatu, Mexico, New Zealand, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru
    • World Vision also has responded to disasters in American Samoa in recent years.
  • World Vision responded in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, as well as earthquakes last year in Haiti and Chile.
  • Staff are on standby to respond in Japan and in many of the potentially-affected countries.
  • Community development staff in the Philippines are working with local governments to coordinate a possible response in coastal areas.
  • World Vision will be able to offer interviews from emergency response and communications staff in Seattle, Japan, the Philippines and possibly Indonesia as connectivity allows.



  • The quake, which occurred at 1:46 p.m. local near the east coast of Honshu, Japan
  • In Tokyo, reports have already been issued predicting waves as high as 10 meters.


[ReviewAZON asin=”0399250069″ display=”inlinepost”]Philippines:

  • Current reports estimate that tsunamis may strike the Philippines by as early as 5 a.m. EST and may strike Indonesia and other South Pacific islands as early as 6 a.m. EST.  At this point, authorities have not released an estimate of the potential size of the waves.
  • According to communications staff Jay Mijares, based in the Philippines, “In the coastal town of Palanan, where World Vision has an ongoing relief operation, World Vision staff were the first to notify the local government of the impending tsunami.  Local government officials have now identified evacuation sites for community members.”
  • World Vision staff in the Philippines are monitoring and have pre-positioned supplies prepared for a response if necessary.


Papua New Guinea

  • Staff in Papua New Guinea have pre-positioned supplies for 1,000 to 2,000 people. Staff are on alert for a potential response.


General Information

  • Some media reports indicate that this may be the fifth largest earthquake reported in the world since 1900.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre has issued tsunami warnings for more than 50 locations, some as far away as the western coasts of Chile and Peru.


World Vision’s Disaster Response Fund allows the relief group to respond rapidly in situations like this. To donate, visit www.worldvision.org or call 1-888-56-CHILD (1-888-562-4453)

World Vision is a Christian humanitarian organization dedicated to working with children, families and their communities worldwide to reach their full potential by tackling the causes of poverty and injustice. World Vision serves all people, regardless of religion, race, ethnicity or gender.

SOURCE World Vision U.S.


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